Everyone can be a Star (Updated May 1, 2019)
Examples (January 27, 2019)
Questions and Answers (May 1, 2019)
For Developers (January 1, 2019)

Multiplexed Internet Domain Names

How and Why


Multiplexed domain names introduce a hierarchy within second level names.  This extra level supports multiple use of 'the same' name without ambiguity.  Examples could include name.com, name*1.com, name*2.com, etc.

Since legacy generic TLDs and country code TLDs increasingly outperform ICANN's ngTLDs, that's where innovation would be most beneficial.

Problems solved by multiplexed names include:

- Anyone can get any name they have a right to, under any TLD. This respects the reality that most names, and even trademarks, aren't unique.

- No one can buy and warehouse a domain name to prevent it from being used, or to extract an unreasonable price.  Name speculation, which raises prices by restricting access to names, becomes less profitable.

- The large number of parked names should decrease (and become generally available).

- Domain names would return to their originally intended use as addresses.

- 'Premium' domains would be determined by the value of the content they present, not by the character string of their name.

- The confusing proliferation of additional new generic TLDs could be avoided.

- While it makes most name ownership disputes superfluous, names you 'have a right to' may be restricted depending on jurisdiction or location (country code or geographic TLDs) or type of business.  Examples include .bank, which was always intended to be restrictive, and the proposed .brand TLDs.

- The technology is transparent and without negative impact on the familiar, existing system.  Prototype multiplexed names have been tested live on the Internet and work within the current domain name system.

- They provide a platform for further development.

- They level the Internet playing field for everyone.

- As long as the US patent is in effect, multiplexed names offer a potent business opportunity to improve the Internet by opening it for additional 'normal' users.

You can create value-added domain names without owning a TLD gold mine. 



Domain names work when normal users are willing to type them as address or follow them as links.

Multiplexed names are easy to test - in software or as paper prototypes - to demonstrate how quickly naive users adapt to their format.  You may hear someone comment: "Why haven't they always done it this way!"



Domain names were introduced in 1983. The only major improvement since then was when global users demanded characters and scripts outside standard ASCII English, and the Internet Engineering Task Force developed IDNA - Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications - to meet the need.  That advance was made back in 2003!

The new generic Top Level Domains are not customer-centric.  When US Department of Commerce first proposed creating ICANN their primary concern was:
  "... widespread dissatisfaction about the absence of competition in domain name registration."
Commerce never mentioned customer benefit or user demand.  ICANN was built on supply side push - Internet users were never asked if they wanted thousands of new Top Level Domains.  The results show they didn't.

The DoC also runs the US Patent and Trademark Office.  They could have said: "compete by inventing a better system" but instead ICANN was founded and populated by groups that supported launching new TLDs.

More than 1900 ngTLD applications were submitted and over 1200 new TLDs have been delegated (made active) since October, 2013, but users don't want them. They haven't solved user problems.



The legacy .com TLD continues to grow.  The number of registered .com names is now above 142 million (http://research.domaintools.com/statistics/tld-counts/) and continues to grow.

The 266 county code TLDs together account for another 154.8 million registrations.

How have ICANN's 1,200 new generic Top Level Domains worked out?  Not very well.

- The total number of ngTLD registrations peaked at over 29 million in April, 2017; the count today is about 3.8 million fewer (https://ntldstats.com/tld).

- More than 1200 ngTLDs are active, but the top 10 account for nearly 55% of total registrations - and even they aren't that popular. There are 2 ngTLDs with more than 2 million registered names, 3 more with 1 million or more, and only the top 10 register more than half a milion names each.  Out of more than 1200 active domains!

- Top ngTLDs can gain or lose thousands of registrations in a day - gains based on marketing ploys and losses on non-renewals.

- Failing to see value materialize, numerous organizations have withdrawn their ngTLD applications. 

Unfortunately most domain names aren't actually used.  Statistics (ntldstats.com) tell us 70% of the registrations they've examined don't provide unique content - they are parked, redirect, or suffer from HTTP errors.

If ngTLDs leave domain name problems unresolved, what does ICANN propose to do?   Oh, they're talking about opening yet another round of ngTLD applications!

Speculation in ngTLD names hasn't supported normal Internet users.  Isn't it better to provide users with what they want, instead of what ngTLD merchants want them to want?



The Internet Domain Name System was never designed to provide universal naming, and that caused a number of problems now so ingrained that most people accepted them as inevitable. Things as common as domain name disputes, name warehousing and auctions, and the drive to market unwanted new TLDs are consequences of the system not being designed to provide universal naming.

The basic problem: most people, companies and trademark holders can't use their own name under their preferred Top Level Domain.

The DNS is a technical system written to a technical specification.  Problems can be resolved by extending the specification.  This was done when internationalized domain names made it possible to use 'foreign' characters and scripts in domain names.

Since the domain name system is hierarchical, multiplexed names add a hierarchical level within second level names.  It's like adding street numbers to street names within a city.  This increases the name space under any Top Level Domain, making it virtually unlimited.

Since almost any combination of letters A-Z, digits 0-9 and the hyphen can be used to register domain names we need a new token character to identify/generate a hierarchy.  We suggest the asterisk (*) as a token, together with a number.

Compare it to the accepted character that designates email addresses - MaratSade.fr could be seen as a domain name, but write it Mar@Sade.fr and you recognize it instantly as an email address.  The same can apply to domain names, where the asterisk is a character indicating multiple use of the same name.

Technically, names are registered in a set format and translated by a simple edge application to include the multiplexing token. This is similar to, but not the same as, the system used to generate foreign characters and scripts in internationalized domain names.

Aren't domain names ICANN's responsibility? Can't you just add numbers, or edit the software already used to translate foreign characters?
See our response to those and other relevant questions under: Questions and Answers  (Updated May 1, 2019).

Multiplexed domain names are a technical step toward Universalized Domain Names. Nesting multiplexed names with internationalized domain names (IDNs) results in universalized names available to anyone, anywhere, in any language or script, under their preferred Top Level Domain, be it a country code, legacy, or one of the new generic TLDs.

If Internet access is considered a human right, isn't registering your own name, under your preferred TLD, also your right?  Otherwise you are arguing that a privileged minority should enjoy name ownership to the exclusion of the majority.

Registering your own domain name isn't a problem when Everyone can be a Star. (Updated May 1, 2019)

Multiplexed names are not offered as a supported product, we only want to demonstrate how the Internet domain name system can evolve to eliminate the current, unnecessary naming restrictions and confusing proliferation of new TLDs.

The combined URL address line/search field in modern browsers already supports the multiplexed name concept.

Multiplexed domain names as tested follow all applicable Internet standards, but the translation format used in our tests is not standardized.



Last updated June 8, 2019

W. Kenneth Ryan